Effect of Water in Fuel Injection on Emissions from a Large Marine Engine
Varalakshmi Jayaram (1), M. YUSUF KHAN (1), Ole Peter Fredrickson (2), William W. Welch (3), J. Wayne Miller (1), David R. Cocker III (1)
(1) Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT), University of California, Riverside (2) MAN Diesel, Research & Development Division, Copenhagen, Denmark (3) College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT), University of California, Riverside
Abstract Number: 557
Preference: Platform Presentation
Last modified: May 13, 2010
Working Group: Combustion
Ocean Going Vessels are a significant contribution to the global emissions inventory. International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulates emissions from marine engines. The IMO has introduced stringent emissions standard that come into effect as early as July of 2010. These regulations focus on the fuel sulfur content and NOx emissions. Some of the technologies being considered for NOx reductions include water injection into fuels or combustion chamber, Injection Timing Retard (ITR), common rail injection and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR).
The goals of this research include determining a) the effectiveness of Water In Fuel Emulsion (WIFE) as a NOx reduction technology and b) the effect of this technology on the total and speciated PM2.5 mass. For this purpose, the main engine on a large container ship was retrofitted with the WIFE technology. In-use measurements were made based on ISO 8178-1 protocol following the loads specified in the ISO 8178-E3 cycle. Emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and particulate matter (PM) are reported for the engine operating on the base fuel HFO and three blends of HFO with water (20%, 33% and 50% water). Additional speciation of PM (Elemental Carbon, Organic Carbon and hydrated Sulfate) is also presented. The WIFE showed a reduction in NOx of up to 30%. The total PM2.5 mass increased by as much as 40% largely attributed to an increase in the organic carbon fraction.