Exposure to Emissions from Firewood Cooking Stoves and the Pulmonary Health of Women in Olorunda Community, Ibadan, Nigeria
Godson Ana(1), Bamidele Adeniji(1),Olusoji Ige(2) Olusola Olapade(3)
(1) University of Ibadan,Ibadan,Nigeria (2) University college Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria (3)University of Chicago, Illinois,USA
Abstract Number: 880
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Last modified: August 15, 2010
Working Group: Health Related Aerosols
Access to cost effective and cleaner energy sources for cooking constitutes a major challenge in the developing world. Also exposure to emissions from available traditional energy sources such as firewood cooking stoves is known to cause diverse health hazards among the world’s vulnerable poor population. In our study we characterized the emissions from firewood cooking stoves and then assessed the effects on the pulmonary health of women in Olorunda community near Ibadan in South western Nigeria. A total of 179 consenting women classified as Firewood Stove Users (FSU) were randomly selected for the study. A calibrated gravimetric sampler was used to collect Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) while calibrated gas monitors was used to determine Gaseous Emissions (GE) viz carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) generated within the vicinities of twelve randomly selected Firewood Stoves (FS).A calibrated digital spirometer was used to assess the lung function status (FEV1) of 74 FSU. Concentrations of RSPM and GE were compared with National Guideline Limits (NGL). Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, student t-test and Spearman-rank correlation. The mean RSPM for FS was 729.9 +59.0µg/m3 and this was higher than NGL of 250µg/m3(p<0.05). Mean GE generated in parts per million (ppm) were: 21.5+0.8, 139+20.5, 0.6+0.3 (0.6+0.4) for CO,CO2, SO2 and NO2 respectively. The concentrations of CO,NO2 and SO2 were above the NGL(P< 0.05). The mean age of participants for the lung function test was 38+12.9 years (15-70 years).The mean observed FEV1 1.5+0.5 when compared with the mean predicted FEV1 2.4+0.5 was lower than that expected for a similar healthy population(p<0.05).There was a negative correlation between particulate burden and lung function status of the respondents (r = -0.46, p<0.05).Hence women in rural communities exposed to emissions from firewood cooking stoves are more vulnerable to respiratory dysfunction.